Security Breach: Types of Malware

Security Breach

Malware: Computer Viruses

A computer virus is a malware that alters certain valid host files (or aims at them) in such a manner that the virus is also triggered when a victim’s file is executed.

Computer viruses are rare, accounting for 10 percent of all malicious software. The only malware that “infects” other files is viruses. This makes them especially complicated to clean up as the code needs to be implemented from the legal software.

Malware: Worms

Worms existed long before computer viruses, rooting way back to mainframe days. In the late 1990s, email introduced them into the trend, and for almost a decade, destructive worms that came in as attachments to the post plagued cybersecurity professionals.

One individual would launch a wormed email and it would invade the entire organization in a short time.

The worm’s distinguishing characteristic is that it replicates itself.


Trojan horse malware programs have substituted code worms as the choice of weapon for attackers. Trojans disguise as legal applications, they have deceptive instructions in them. They existed for a long time, much longer than computer viruses. More than any other form of malware, they have taken control of modern computers.

To do its job, its victim must execute a Trojan. Trojans typically arrive via email, or as they access compromised websites, it thrust them onto users.

Hybrids and exotic forms

Most malware today is a blend of cultural malicious software, often involving sections of Trojans and worms and sometimes a virus.

The ransomware software usually shows up as a trojan to the end-user, but once launched, it targets other people like a worm over the server.


Ransomware infected companies, schools, police forces, and even whole cities. Most ransomware systems are Trojans, which suggests they have to be distributed by some form of social manipulation.

Fileless Malware

Fileless malware is not really a malware category, but more like a definition of how they manipulate and persevere. Common malware uses a file system to move and exploit alternative systems.

Fileless malware, which accounts for over 50 percent of all infection and is increasing, is a malware that does not use software or the file system directly. Rather, they manipulate and scatter in memory or use certain “non-file” OS artifacts like registry keys, APIs, or scheduled activities.


Adware which intends to disclose unauthorized, potentially harmful ads to the compromised end-user. A common adware software may redirect browser queries of a consumer to clone website that contain certain promotional items.

Not to be mistaken with adware, malvertising is the usage of legal advertising or ad networks to send viruses covertly to machines of unwitting consumers. A hacker, for example, could pay to put an ad on a legal web site.

When a user opens the ad, the code either reroutes them to a website that is harmful or downloads malware on their device. In certain situations, the malware encoded in an ad can fully automate without the consumer taking any action.


Spyware is often commonly utilized for individuals who want to test their loved ones’ machine practices. Criminals will use spyware in coordinated attacks to monitor victims’ keystrokes to gain entry to credentials or personal property.

Adware and spyware applications are typically the hardest to uninstall, mostly due to their purposes being not as malicious as certain forms of malware.

The appearance of an adware/spyware system will act as an alert that the computer or consumer has some flaws to fix before calling for actual ugliness.

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